Phukubje international best practice. Only a very little

Phukubje
& Ngoepe’s  (2016)  Stated that students with disabilities were
not fulfilled with a purpose-built library service unit which was established
with international best practice. Only a very little material has been
translated into accessible formats. Moreover, only one librarian was consigned
to administer and run the entire library service for all the students with
disabilities.

Madaus
(2011) Stated that learning disability (LD) is
developmental disorder typically identified in childhood. Even though many
students with LD continue to show weakness in academic skills in adulthood,
but  in recent decades students with
learning disabilities shows interest in enrolling in colleges and universities
as postsecondary institutions have developed a wide range of services to meet
these students’ needs.

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Syed
Salma Jameel (2011) Explored that students with disability
face different issues in higher education when compared to school education.
The reason is higher education increases the opportunity of employment for
disabled student. But in countries like India it is found that there are only
less study related to the field of disability in higher education. Globally
there are many researches are being carried out in the field of disability and
higher education. But this has not shown much improvement in the entry of
students to higher education because of various reasons. Infrastructural
amenities within institutions, attitude towards persons with disabilities,
transportation facilities, and lack of support services are a few areas, which
hinder the entry of students with disabilities into higher education.

 

Dutta et al., (2009) Identified
that in many Western countries’ legislation and the development of programs for
students with disabilities, in recognition of the importance of higher
education for individuals, families, and society at large, low enrolment and
high first-year dropout have been found and initiatives have been taken
according to the difficulties faced by the students with disabilities. Below
are the cases which the students with disabilities often face it. Low enrolment
and high dropout can be understood as the result of inadequate accessibility of
higher education institutions, lack of support, adverse social attitudes and
social isolation, as well as low financial capacity.

Calculator
(2009) stated that students with severe disabilities and
complex communication needs present special challenges to speech-language
pathologists (SLPs) can be treated like other students in least restrictive
environment, which may be a normal classroom. The objective of this article, is
to state the term severe disabilities includes profound intellectual
disabilities and associated challenges with adaptive behaviors, including
communication. They can be treated normal classrooms when there is a high level
of moral support from family, educational institutions, teaching faculties and
classmates. Thus, leading the disabled student to live and enjoy the best
quality of life.

 

Matthew
Brett(2008) Identified that studies have defined
disability in different ways, hence there is no approved definition. The
subject of disability has been widely debated by scholars both inside and
outside the discrete field of disability studies. In the Preamble to the United
Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the lack of an
agreed definition is evident as signatory nations, including Australia, agree
to “Recognizing that disability is an evolving concept”

Hadjikakou
& Hartas, (2008) revealed that in recent years the number
of students with disability are interested in attending higher education is
increasing. Still then they have barriers in accessing and participating in
higher education courses.

Donato
(2008).   Explored
that at times staff may exhibit, either implicitly or explicitly, negative
attitudes regarding students with a particular disability. They intend to have
a negative attitude towards student with a disability and vice versa – this
affect the studies of student with a disability. Teachers with positive attitude
and flexible in teaching methods can handle students with disability in a
better way. Perceived power differences can be improved through the development
of a good rapport with students, having tolerance, good communication skills, a
flexible and concerned approach, an understanding of nature of different
disabilities and the different needs of students.

(Burgstahler & Cory, 2008).
Stated that anti-discrimination legislation for students of disabilities was
established and it pointed out the social barriers faced by them in the day to
day life. Anti-discriminatory legislative caveats specify that society and
educational institutions should take special care in serving the students of
disabilities various requirements.

Hadjikakou
& Hartas, (2008) Explored that globally there is a rise
in the number of students with disabilities entering higher education
institutions which show the interest of disabled students. Equal opportunity
and admission for disabled students are sponsored by higher education institutions
with the policies created for non-discrimination by the Legislation.

 

Forlin,
(2007) Expressed that in general students with disability
do not possess the context of multi- lingual, when it comes to higher education
and surveys suggest the importance of the major role played by this area. The
key point for the development of student disability is to identify and
understand the view and experience of disabled students, specifically in
academic theory. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) should take steps in
understanding the obstacles of disabled students.

Barnes
(2007) Observed in his research that the relationship
between political activism, (i.e. the struggle for recognition in the
university for disabled students).In recent times the higher education
institutions have become advanced resulting in revolution from both inside and
outside of the university. Consequently, the change for legitimacy in higher
education research must be inclusive of the voices of disabled student.

 

Gibilisco
(2006) illustrates the personal difficulties connected with
studying disability in Higher educational settings. A collection of legislative
and policy instruments have been specially developed to restore the
difficulties connected with education for learning disabled students.

Yorgan,
(2006) Presented the prospects of higher enrollment of
students with disabilities have prompted academic institutes to introduce
innovative programs to meet these students needs. Special programs have been
opened for students with visual impairments, students with learning
disabilities, and students with psychiatric disabilities.

Riddell
et al. (2005) observed that UK higher education
system made changes in education system for disabled students which attracted
them for education. The changes were useful for both the staff and students;
this paved a way for an increase in number of disabled students for UK higher
education (Hopkins, 2011). Students with specific learning difficulties (SpLD)
such as dyslexia and dyspraxia shows more interest for UK higher education in
recent years.

Rimmerman & Araten-Bergman,
(2005). Stated that public committee in Israel examined the
implementation of the Equal Rights for Persons with Disabilities Act,
emphasized the crucial role of higher education in the inclusion of people with
disabilities into society and in employment. Israel’s National Insurance
Institute allocated resources to making academic institutions accessible, as
well as granting individual students with disabilities scholarships and support
services. The recent study was initiated to estimate the outcome of these
social and legal developments on the inclusion of students with disabilities in
higher education. The improvement in the research, for the students with
disabilities to participate in a wide range of student activities, in addition
to conventional academic outcome.

Rao,
(2004) Discussed that along with the supporting factors,
researches have inferred that faculty attitude towards students with
disabilities plays a vital role. Faculty should understand the point that
disabled students are entirely different from one another (need, understanding
power, knowledge etc). Entire success or failure of a disabled student depends
on the teaching staff. Any negative attitude, of the staffs as a very bad
effect on the student. In a survey, 50% of students with disabilities indicated
that faculty members understood their needs, but only 25% of faculty members
were willing to change the material covered in their courses to suit these
students& learning needs. Most (82%) of the students indicated that faculty
members needed to learn more about disabilities.

Fuller
et al.(2004). Suggested, that provision for students
with disabilities were limited and ignored in exam or assignment concession and
teaching modification. Teaching modification includes the re-thinking and
adapting the learning goals and the curriculum did not take place in any of the
colleges interviewed. Moreover, the disabled students themselves hindered the
disability issues. Few disabled students may not know that they were entitled
to additional support; they may not perceive themselves as having ‘special
needs’ or disabilities; or they may choose not to disclose disabilities because
they believed that they will be deprived (feeling a sense of stigma and shame).

 

Kraska,
(2003) Have identified that disabled students need to
spend more effort and time in meeting the education requirements. More time is
required for disabled students in doing the class work as well as homework and
for self care.  They also spend more time
in building a good relationship with other students and teaching staffs.
Developing interpersonal communication, as well as creating social network, is
an essential outcome of academic studies and of social inclusion. Higher
education institutions should support the disabled students by monetary as well
as non monetary.

 

Ebersold
and Evans (2003) Illustrates an ecological definition
should be adopted that accepts disability as “a product of strengths and
weaknesses of the individual and the environment in which he/she functions, and
not due solely to his/her intrinsic characteristics. Thus many SWD can be
successful if the learning conditions are supportive and meet their particular
needs.”

Farmer
et al. (2002) Pointed out that students with learning
difficulties in higher education should be taken care at three levels namely –
personal, organizational/institutional and political/ideological. Personal in
terms of providing counseling services and making students with disabilities to
understand the prospectus of the program, explaining the new teaching methods
and other necessaries related to the higher education. Finally, ideological in
terms current political policies which changes from time to time, striving for
equality and making them understand about the emerging opportunities and
entitlement to education.

Hall
et al., (2002) Explored that it is unenviable
(difficult) to consider disabled students as a separate group, as they fall
along a continuum of learner differences and share similar challenges and
obstacles that all normal students face in higher education. At times the
obstacles faced by disabled students are more when compared to the normal
students, but sometimes not. To avoid these issues, the main beneficiaries of
disability legislation should take necessary steps by providing well-prepared
handouts; instructions given in writing as well as verbally, materials should
be updated in online from time to time and different types of assessment forms.

Janiga
et al. (2002) Studied that the students with learning
difficulties may face various challenges, once moved from school to
postsecondary level. First, learning disabilities are hidden disabilities, as
they are not physically evident or noticeable by others. Therefore, the
requirement of students with LD are not easily understood and acknowledged as
the needs of students with more evident disabilities (e.g., visual, hearing or
orthopedic impairments).The differentiation between secondary and postsecondary
education also create troubles for students with LD. Naturally, a university
setting provides less student-teacher contact and larger class sizes. College
courses usually require extensive projects and frequent assessment when
compared to schools and this is the areas were the students with LD suffer a
lot.

Blackstone
& Light et al., (2002) discussed the significance of
various teaching models for disabled students. He found out that student
learning skills may vary from time to time as communication demands. Hence, AAC
systems should take into account about the present levels of communication
while promoting more sophisticated systems associated with more robust
communication.

Foreman
et al., (2001) Stated that western countries
legislation has come out with many development programs in higher education for
students with disabilities. But still then there is a low enrolment and high
first-year drop out as been found. This happens due to lack of moral support,
social isolation, inadequate accessibility of higher educational institutes and
low financial capacity.

Lancaster
et al. (2001)  
Listed few obstacles in recruiting students with disabilities in higher
education such as diversity, lifestyle, non friendly to the surroundings and
legal obligations. In his study, a number of Heads stated that they did not
actively recruit students with disabilities although they ”don’t turn them
away when they are registered”. In certain subjects, such as engineering, it
was said that, for safety reasons, students with disabilities were being
discouraged from registering, raising issues regarding equality of opportunity
and participation of students with disability in education.

Tinklin
and Hall (1999) found that disabilities in higher
education depends on good understanding, mind-set and acquaintance about
disability among staff and students more 
than the institutional policies.

Singleton
(1999) produced a list of recommendations for students
with dyslexia to all the staffs of institution such as admission officers,
examination officers, and counselors and to establish a special examination and
assessment arrangements for students with dyslexia.

Gall
et. al.,(1999). Conducted research and its
implications are the disabled students were little noticed in higher education
in many countries. But in country like Ethiopia the minority disabled students
receive best higher education. Recently there is a change globally in higher
education, about one third or more of the age group in many countries, combined
with the improved educational opportunities for students with disabilities,
increases concern on the discrimination in higher education.

Kirk,
Gallagher & Anastasiow (1997) Explored that by using
multi-sensory teaching methods identified that student learn in different ways.
For learning purpose students uses different modalities such as visual,
auditory, and kinesthetic. Each student has the own preference for the
particular modality. But in case of student with learning disabilities often
have a major deficit in the modalities which results in an
information-processing deficit.

Brody
& Mills (1997) Conducted a survey in the field of dual
exceptionality led to define three subcategories of students whose individual
educational needs remain unrecognized. These are: (a) gifted students who are
labeled as underachievers; their learning difficulties are often recognized
with personality and nature improvement problems, being enhanced by educational
challenges and, finally, reaching the point where they are connected to a
disability; (b) gifted students with severe learning disabilities (LD) who are
diagnosed as LD students; they are enrolled in special education programs
designed for LD students; therefore, their giftedness is usually ignored; and
(c) students whose giftedness and learning disability overshadows each other,
leading to an overall average academic performance; due to this “common
compensation”, these students are not identified as gifted and, as a
consequence, they are not selected for gifted educational programs most of
times. These are reasons why most of these GLD students “fall through the
cracks” of the educational system.

Bradley,
(1997) States that there is a little perception about
disabled students’ attitude in higher education and not the consequence faced
by them. The methods in which evaluation practices are followed may
differentiate students with disabilities. There are few factors which are
uncertain and they are cultural, racial, and socio-economic which plays a vital
role of disabled students. 

Tomlinson
(1996) Inferred that
Further and Higher Education Act (1992) support the Further Education
Funding Council (FEFC) to take regard of the requirements of students with
disabilities by providing additional funding to individual colleges. In this
way FEFC encourages students with disabilities to opt for higher educational
programs. These initiatives require individual institutions to competitively
bid for money to fund provision for students with disabilities.