INTRODUCTION: into the system. These kind of continuous

INTRODUCTION:

College life involves many tension-related
situations, which include daily stresses relating to teachers, student,
colleagues and assignments. Social Support
helps to cope with these stressors. Stress
and social support play are both associated with psychological and physical
well-being (Snoeren, and Hoefnagels, 2014).
Along with academic stresses, students are looking for independence and
self-sufficiency from their parents and accountability for themselves,
agreement from their colleagues in an academic world of mixed values, and more
friendly relationships which affects both physiological and psychological
functioning of the person (Spangler. 2002).  Students
undergo the pressure of academics with an obligation to succeed, an uncertain
future, and difficulties of integrating into the system. These kind of
continuous stressors can cause high levels of stress among students (Singh et
al., 2013). According to Neveu (2013) academic
stress contributes to the deterioration of the students’ quality of life.  “Stress” is
the term coined by Hans Selye in 1930’s. Perceived Stress includes
distress through negative consequences or positive events that creates a
feeling of tension and burden.  Minimum
level of stress might not harm body and health, but extreme level of stress
caused can cause bodily harm by increases the heart rate, respiration, and
blood pressure.  In addition, long-term
stress can be a causal component in heart disease, high blood pressure and
other maladies (Segal, 2015). 
Psychological Stress is defined, as the amount of person perceives
stress surpass their ability to cope (Lazarus, 1966There are three-type of
stress. First, Acute Stress lasts for a very short period of time and
characterized by psychological and physiological symptoms. When the acute
stress becomes too repeated that leads to the second type of stress called
Episodic Stress and this type ceases from time to time. Third, Chronic Stress
is opposite of the acute stress type. Long-term experience to chronic stressors
makes one risky diseases and psychological disorders. Cite

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Stress is primarily a physical response that
occurs when the body thinks it is under attack and switches to ‘fight or
flight’ mode, releasing a complex of hormones and chemicals such as adrenaline,
cortisol and norepinephrine to prepare the body for physical action. Perceived
stress is the feelings or thoughts that an individual has about how much stress
they are under at a given point in time or over a given time period (Phillips, 2013). Individuals may suffer
similar negative life events but appraise the impact or severity of these to
different extents as a result of factors such as personality, coping resources,
and support. In this way, perceived stress reflects the interaction between an
individual and their environment (Phillips, 2013).  Perfectionism, fuelled by past
academic achievements and future scholastic expectations, is reported as a
major cause of perceived stress in preclinical students (Atkinson et al., 1991). Empirical evidence supports the assumption: in examining satisfaction
with life across the five domains (i.e. self, standard of living, health,
leisure and family life) Brown (1998), found satisfaction to be related to
perceived stress. In fact, satisfaction in the domain was found to be a greater
predictor of perceived stress than sociodemographic variables. In a study done
by Cohen, Kamarck and Mermelstein (1983), perceived stress was associated with
lower life satisfaction and increased depressive symptomology. According to Reeve
et al., (2013) stress impacts the
student experiences while they are in school and may later impact their lives
and journeys as professionals.

 

Social support in the form of friends, family,
teachers or society guides an individual to achieve physical, mental and
emotional comfort and well-being. “Social
support” is the term coined by Cassel which means having the support of
friends, family and others in times of need and crisis because of which a
person can cope from any sort of situations. Social support is needed to anyone
regardless of age. Social support is mostly needed in personality development
of teenagers, young adults and adults, because that particular age plays an
important role on personality development. Teenagers and young adults need
emotional support, informational support, personal advice; whereas adults need
much of advice and financial support for settling in their life. Social support
helps a person to act according to the social norms of the society he/she
belongs to. Social support in young children helps improving their language,
observation, learning and communication skills. In case of teenagers and young
adults, they require social support, to bring out their ideas to the outside
world, taking decisions with the help of the support they obtain from their social
environment and problem-solving skills as well. Social support in adults helps
in multi-tasking especially in case of parents, where they take care of their
children and also maintain their household expenses; also including active
participation in their social life.

 

Social support refers to the various types of
support (i.e., assistance/help) that people receive from others and is
generally classified into major categories: emotional, instrumental and (sometimes
informational support). Emotional support refers to the things that people do
that make us feel loved and cared for, that bolster our sense of self-worth
(e.g., talking over a problem, providing encouragement/positive feedback); such
support frequently takes the form of non-tangible types of assistance. By
contrast, instrumental support refers to the various types of tangible help
that others may provide (e.g., help with childcare/housekeeping, provision of
transportation or money). Informational support represents a third type of
social support (one that is sometimes included within the instrumental support
category) and refers to the help that others may offer through the provision of
information. (Atkinson, Liem, & Liem., 1986).  Albrecht and Adelman (1987) defined social
support as “verbal and nonverbal communication between recipients and providers
that reduces uncertainty about the situation, the self, the other or the
relationship, and the functions to enhance a perception of personal control in
one’s life experience.” Perceived support refers to an individual’s assumption
that social support is feasible and it is usually treated as positive or
negative and it maintains what is essential for an individual (Mattson and
Hall, 2011There are three social support factors are family, friends, and
colleagues. According to Mark Stanton in 2005, there are many aspects of Family
Psychology that are significant to our members and we hope to involve more
members to provide networking, support, projects, and programs to address this
issue (Harway, 2005). There are many Benefits of a social support network. Spending
time with people helps ward off loneliness that lead you to sense of belonging.
When you have people who call you a friend reinforces the idea that you’re a
good person to be around that increases sense of self-worth. It’s comforting to
know that you have people you can turn to in a time of need, which mean a
feeling of security. Finally, when dealing with a stressful situation, people
are less likely to report stress-linked health problems when they feel like
they have support from others (Cohen, 1985). Landis (1988) proposed that social
support is an interpersonal transaction involving emotional concern (e.g.,
liking, love, empathy), instrumental aid (e.g., goods or services), information
(cues regarding the environment), and/or appraisal (information relevant to
self-evaluation). Social support is considered
as one of the most important way of coping with academic stress. There is some
evidence, however, that explained the main effect of support on major health
outcomes for the contrast between persons who are essentially social isolates
(i.e., those with very few or no social contacts) and persons with moderate or
high level of support (House, Landies, and
Umberson, 1988). One study states that social support played an
important role in keeping individuals’ health, with direct impact of decreasing
negative stresses from society and environment (Ramezankhani et al., 2013).

 

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Studies suggest that perceived support has a
greater impact on adjustment and mental health than actual support (Helgeson,
1993; Mcdowell and Serovich, 2007). Focus upon social support and vicissitudes
of life would help prevent the prevalence of depression-related disorders, and
it seems that social support functions like a protective shield in stressful
situations, thus preventing depression symptoms and or alleviate psychological
symptoms (Bakhshani N.M., et. al., 2003). Studies suggest that social support
and coping strategies are linked in anticipating emotional and psychological
well-being of a person and also the level and kind of social support effects
the choices people in selecting an appropriate coping strategy for themselves (Kim et al., 2010;
Chan et al., 2004; Cabrera et al., 2013). Coping
mechanisms such as utilization of social support have been shown to be
effective in managing the effects of stress and promoting individual well-being
Hubbard et al. (1984) found that an
increased perceived level of social support had a direct positive association
with participation in positive health practices, including adequate nutrition,
exercise, relaxation, safety, and health promotion. Conversely, college
students with lower levels of social support smoked signi?cantly more and consumed more alcohol when facing the stress
of exams than those with higher levels of social support (Steptoe
et al., 1996). These ?ndings highlight the positive in?uence social support can have on healthy lifestyle choices
(Reeve, 2013).