Children the vagaries and complex nature of alphabetic

Children with learning disability
influence around 15 percent of the populace and can profoundly affect people
and families. Individuals with learning disabilities are similarly as keen (and
here and there more brilliant) than their associates yet experience issues
learning in an ordinary school setting.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA), a federal law, defines a learning disability as a condition when a
child’s achievement is substantially below what one might expect for that
child. Learning disabilities do not include problems that are primarily the
result of intellectual disabilities, emotional disturbance, or visual, hearing,
emotional or intellectual disabilities. (LD online, 2008)

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http://www.ldonline.org/article/Learning_Disabilities%3A_An_Overview

According
to Rehabilitation Council of India, The LD movement in India is of more recent
origin and comparable today with that of the western LD movement of nearly half
a century ago. In the eastern world, LD was earlier considered a problem of
English speaking countries. The apparent lower incidence of these types of
difficulties resulted in a relative lack of concern about LD in Asian countries
such as India and China. Reports of lower incidences of LD in the eastern world
were attributed by Western scholars to the general lack of awareness and
sensitivity among educationists. The specific difficulties faced by children
learning to read were attributed to the overcrowded classrooms. At the same
time, reports of the high incidence of problems associated with the acquisition
of reading in Western countries was attributed by easterners to the vagaries
and complex nature of alphabetic writing systems such as English. (Dr. Marita Adam, 2006) http://www.rehabcouncil.nic.in/writereaddata/ld.pdf

These children with Learning Disability (LD)
can overcome their challenges faced due to disability with the help of
Assistive Technology, in the past two decades there is an increase in the
awareness of the problem and the availability of AT that can help people with
LD

 

v Definition of Assistive
Technology

There
are various definitions given for Assistive Technology over the years, it’s
evident from studies already done that it’s any equipment or aide that helps
individuals with disabilities

Assistive
Technology (AT) is a set of tools that individuals with disabilities can access
during school and work (Bryant & Byrant, 1998; Dyal, Carpenter & Wright
2009) Netherton and Deal (2006) define assistive technology as “is any piece of
equipment or device that may be used by a person with a disability to perform
specific tasks, improve functional capabilities, and become more independent.

Assistive technology devices are identified in the Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 2004 as:

Any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether
acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to
increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of children with disabilities.
The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted, or the
replacement of such device. (Authority 20 U.S.C. 1401(1)) (Woods, 2017)

http://www.gpat.org/georgia-project-for-assistive-technology/pages/assistive-technology-definition.aspx

v Benefits of Assistive
Technology

Assistive technology advances more prominent
freedom by empowering individuals to perform errands that they were in the past
unfit to achieve or had incredible trouble achieving, by giving improvements
to, or changing strategies for interfacing with, the innovation expected to
achieve such assignments.

Because of assistive technology, individuals
with disabilities have a chance of a more positive and accommodating way of
life, with an expansion in “social investment,” “security and
control,” and a more prominent opportunity to “diminish institutional
expenses without essentially expanding family costs.” (Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia)

v Assistive Technology and
Learning Disabilities: Today’s Realities and Tomorrow’s Promises

By:
Rena B. Lewis

JOURNAL
OF LEARNING DISABILITIES VOLUME 31, NUMBER 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998, PAGES
16-26, 54

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.977.4224&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Many
forms of technology, both “high” and “low can help individuals
with learning disabilities capitalize on their strengths and bypass, or
compensate for, their disabilities. This article surveys the current status of
assistive technology for this population and reflects on future promises and
potential problems. In addition, a model is presented for conceptualizing
assistive technology in terms of the types of barriers it helps persons with
disabilities to surmount. Several current technologies are described and the
research supporting their effectiveness reviewed: word processing,
computer-based instruction in reading and other academic areas, interactive
videodisc interventions for math, and technologies for daily life. In
conclusion, three themes related to the future success of assistive technology
applications are discussed: equity of access to technology; ease of technology
use; and emergent technologies, such as virtual reality.  (Lewis, 1998)

v Students with Learning Disabilities: The Effectiveness of
Using Assistive Technology

By Andrea Messmer

School of Education, St John Fisher College

December 2013

https://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1294=education_ETD_masters

 

The study concentrates on
the adequacy of assistive technology gadgets and programming in helping understudies
with learning disabilities. Understudies with perusing and composing
inabilities encounter troubles with education assignments all through the
school day. This study comprised of talking an assistive technology expert and
breaking down understudy work tests. The result of this study is that the utilization
of assistive technology bolsters help to even the odds for these understudies.
The findings of the study affect general training instructors, unique teachers,
and guardians/watchmen. The findings of this investigation affect general
instruction instructors and custom curriculum experts and in addition parental
figures. It is obvious from this study that instructors ought to consider
alluding understudies for assistive technology assessments when they watch that
understudies are experiencing issues with perusing and composing. Educators
should be available to accepting preparing for the assistive technology pro so
they can figure out how to inject the innovation into the classrooms. Thusly,
will instructors develop as experts, as well as they will bolster the understudies’
scholarly advance and additionally their confidence? Teachers ought to likewise
think about going to workshops on assistive technology to additionally find out
about the field. By monitoring assistive technology gadgets and programming,
parental figures can advocate for their youngsters. In the event that a
parent/guardian watches that his child is battling with finishing homework
because of troubles with perusing and composing, he should converse with his
child’s educator in regards to the thought of assistive technology. (Messmer, 2013)

v Word Processing as an
Assistive Technology Tool for Enhancing Academic Outcomes of Students with
Writing Disabilities in the General Classroom

By
Orit E. Hetzroni and Betty Shrieber

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Betty_Shrieber/publication/8224267_Word_Processing_as_an_Assistive_Technology_Tool_for_Enhancing_Academic_Outcomes_of_Students_with_Writing_Disabilities_in_the_General_Classroom/links/562b73e808ae22b17033550a.pdf

This
study investigated the use of a word processor for enhancing the academic
outcomes of three students with writing disabilities in a junior high school. A
single-subject ABAB design was used to compare academic output produced during
class time with and without a computer equipped with a word processor. The
number of spelling errors, the number of reading errors, and the number of
words used per text were counted, and the overall structure and organization of
text were examined across all in-class materials. The data demonstrated a clear
difference between handwritten and computer phases. In traditional
paper-and-pencil phases, students produced outcomes that had more spelling
mistakes, more reading errors, and lower overall quality of organization and
structure in comparison with the phases in which a computer equipped with a
word processor was used. The results did not indicate any noticeable difference
in the number of words per text. Implications and future research directions
are discussed. (Orit E. Hetzroni, 2015)

v Assistive Technologies
for Reading

By:
Ted S. Hasselbring and Margaret E. Bausch

December
2005/January 2006 | Volume 63 | Number 4 Learning in the Digital Age

http://imoberg.com/files/Assistive_Technologies_for_Reading_Hasselbring_T.S._Bausch_M.E._.pdf

Assistive
Technologies for Literacy

According
to (Ted S. Hasselbring M. E., 2005, 2006) “Literacy is one
area in which well-applied assistive technologies can act as a lifeline to
students with learning disabilities”. As many as 8 of 10 students with learning
disabilities have reading problems so significant that they cannot read and
understand grade-level material (Lerner, 2003). Learning disabilities often
interfere with students’ ability to grasp principles of phonetics, decode text,
or comprehend what they read. In our work with schools, we have seen assistive
technology break down barriers to full literacy in two ways: as a reading
support, meaning that computer-based applications help students with learning
disabilities successfully access grade level text as they read, and as a
reading intervention, meaning that the technology helps students strengthen and
improve their overall reading skills. Supportive assistive technology
approaches should work symbiotically with learning interventions. In an ideal
situation, students can use an assistive technology intervention to continually
improve their reading skills while at the same time taking advantage of a
reading support to provide the scaffolding necessary to read text at their
grade level.

Providing
Reading Supports

In
2000, the Kentucky Department of Education embarked on a technology-based
initiative to help students with disabilities become more independent when
reading grade-level text. The program centered on an assistive technology
called text-reader software that uses synthetic speech to read text aloud while
the same text is highlighted on a computer screen. After evaluating various
text-reader tools, the Kentucky Department of Education selected a software
program called Read & Write Gold.1 Kentucky negotiated an agreement with
Text HELP, makers of Read & Write Gold, to provide a discount for Kentucky
schools; 95 percent of Kentucky’s public schools now have a site license for
this product. Read & Write Gold software provides text-to-speech output of
individual words, sentences, or paragraphs. It allows the student to customize
the program and select personal preferences for the text-to-speech output, such
as voice gender, speed, and pitch. The voice reading aloud may be heard through
computer speakers or through personal headphones. As the name implies, Read
& Write Gold also provides computerized support for writing, another area
of difficulty for many students with learning disabilities. Perhaps the most
powerful writing feature is word prediction. As a student is composing on the
computer, the computer attempts to predict, on the basis of the context or the
first few letters typed by the student, the word that the student is reaching
for, and provides several choices. Such support often dramatically speeds up
the student’s composition process. Because students with learning disabilities
frequently skip words or misread written text even in their own compositions,
the text-reader feature of Read & Write Gold can be especially useful. At
any point during the writing process, the student can direct the computer to
read back portions of the text. When students with learning disabilities can
hear what they have written, their composing and editing labors are lessened.
To a large extent, the success of the Kentucky project has hinged on making
computer-readable school texts available to Kentucky’s students. Recent
legislation amends the state’s textbook adoption law to provide preferential
procurement status to textbook publishers that supply digital versions of their
textbooks (Casebier, 2002) (Ted S. Hasselbring M. E., 2005, 2006).

v Use of Computer
Technology to Help Students with Special Needs

By:
Ted S. Hasselbring and Candyce Williams Glaser

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e5b8/03c79f6b93fc644e2d99fe801c837bf91af6.pdf

Millions
of students across the United States cannot benefit fully from a traditional
educational program because they have a disability that impairs their ability
to participate in a typical classroom environment. For these students,
computer-based technologies can play an especially important role. Not only can
computer technology facilitate a broader range of educational activities to
meet a variety of needs for students with mild learning disorders, but adaptive
technology now exists than can enable even those students with severe
disabilities to become active learners in the classroom alongside their peers
who do not have disabilities. This article by  (Ted S. Hasselbring, 2000) provides an overview
of the role computer technology can play in promoting the education of children
with special needs within the regular classroom. For example, use of computer
technology for word processing, communication, research, and multimedia
projects can help the three million students with specific learning and
emotional disorders keep up with their nondisabled peers. Computer technology
has also enhanced the development of sophisticated devices that can assist the
two million students with more severe disabilities in overcoming a wide range
of limitations that hinder classroom participation––from speech and hearing
impairments to blindness and severe physical disabilities. However, many
teachers are not adequately trained on how to use technology effectively in
their classrooms, and the cost of the technology is a serious consideration for
all schools. Thus, although computer technology has the potential to act as an
equalizer by freeing many students from their disabilities, the barriers of
inadequate training and cost must first be overcome before more widespread use
can become a reality. The barriers of inadequate teacher training and high cost
are problematic––significantly inhibiting the use of technology in classroom
settings––but are not insurmountable. There is no doubt that technology has the
potential to act as an equalizer by freeing many students from their disability
in a way that allows 118 THE FUTURE OF CHILDREN – FALL/WINTER 2000 To meet the
needs of students with disabilities within regular classrooms, all teachers,
both those in regular education and those in special education programs, need
training in how technology can be used. http://www.futureofchildren.org them to
achieve their true potential. More widespread use of technology would meet both
the legal requirements and the spirit of the laws calling for students with
special needs to be educated in the least restrictive environment. Thus, it is
important for all individuals who are involved in policy decisions regarding
the placement of students with disabilities, teacher training, and the funding
of educational technologies to become familiar with the issues surrounding the
use of technology for students with disabilities. Working together, parents,
teachers, administrators, and school board members, as well as both students
with disabilities and their nondisabled peers, can help create classroom
environments in which all students have opportunities to learn. (Ted S.
Hasselbring, 2000)

v Barriers to the use of
assistive technology for children with multiple disabilities

JODIE
COPLEY Division of Occupational Therapy, University of Queensland, St. Lucia,
Australia JENNY ZIVIANI Division of Occupational Therapy, University of
Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia

Occupational
Therapy International, 11(4), 229-243, 2004 © Whurr Publishers Ltd

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oti.213/pdf

Assistive
technology has aided children with multiple disabilities to improve access and
participation in their school and home environments. Effective educational
outcomes from assistive technology use are dependent upon a coordinated
assessment and implementation process. The literature on assistive technology
with children was reviewed in order to identify current barriers to its
effective integration within schools. These barriers were found to include lack
of appropriate staff training and support, negative staff attitudes, inadequate
assessment and planning processes, insufficient funding, difficulties procuring
and managing equipment, and time constraints. A team model for assistive
technology assessment and planning is proposed to optimize the educational goal
achievement of children with multiple disabilities. Such a model can help
target the allocation of occupational therapy resources in schools to best
promote educational and broader functional outcomes from assistive technology
use. (Jodie Copley, 2004)

Despite
increasing attention to the training options available to service providers, it
appears that organized training is not the complete answer to AT problems. A
critical examination of AT use by teachers and occupational therapists reveals
that a high level of formal training and/or continuing education does not
necessarily correlate with better technology applications (Reed and Kanny,
1993; Hutinger et al., 1996; McGregor and Pachuski, 1996). Highly trained
teachers identify the need for more extensive training and ongoing support
(Hutinger et al., 1996). Research suggests that this need extends to families
and the students themselves, who rely on the skills of professionals (Phillips
and Zhao, 1993; Todis and Walker, 1993; Carey and Sale, 1994; Parette and
Hourcade, 1997; Margolis and Goodman, 1999) (Jodie Copley, 2004)

v Using Assistive Technology Adaptations to
Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities

Diane Pedrotty Bryant, Brian R. Bryant

First Published January 1,
1998 Research Article

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/002221949803100105

Cooperative learning (CD is a common instructional
arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement
and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities.
Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide
an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided
by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies
suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning
activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to
help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties
so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A
process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning
activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations,
monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities,
and evaluating the adaptations’ effectiveness. The article concludes with
comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration,
technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider
technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities. (Diane
Pedrotty Bryant, 1998)