ANALYSING and housing, it also has various negatives

ANALYSING
ENVIRONMENTAL RISK IN INDIA

 

In today’s fast paced world, the business sector and people are
constantly evolving and developing. Sometimes, this development happens at the
cost of other living beings- whether it is people being displaced from their
houses in order to clear out space for new plants and factories or whether it
is at the risk of polluting the environment and contributing to its
degradation. In today’s time environmental risk has become a crucial topic that
needs to be addressed.

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According to the Global Risks Report, 2017 which studies the impact of
the changing dynamics in the world and assesses a list of catastrophic risks
which have a probability of affecting people globally stated that the top five
in terms of their likelihood to happen included a geopolitical risk- weapons of
mass destruction and the rest were all environmental risks- extreme weather
events, failure of climate change, crisis due to water depletion and major
natural disasters.

 

Identifying the problem

With a population of over 1.3 billion which is growing at a rate of 2.11
percent every year, India will soon overtake China to become the most populous
country in the world. With an ever-growing population there comes a strain on
the scarce natural resources which ultimately lead to their depletion. Furthermore,
various environmental concerns tend to crop up with an increasing population which
if not tackled immediately can be detrimental. The various risks faced by India
today include:

 

Ø 
Deforestation

When the population first started
growing, land was cleared  out in order
to cater to the growing needs of food production. Currently India has a forest
cover of about 24% as against the target of 33% cover set by the Forest Policy Resolutions, 1952. Even
though deforestation does have a positive impact and results in more land for
food production and housing, it also has various negatives consequences including
loss of biodiversity, excessive floods, droughts and incessant climate changes
amongst other things.

   *source: livemint

                                                                                                                          
*source: livemint

 

 

Ø 
Global Warming

Global warming is one of the most widely
discussed topic in today’s time. Countries have traced a bulk of all
environmental risks including floods, droughts, water shortage and ozone
depletion back to global warming. Greenhouse gas emissions- the main reason for
global warming have worsened the air pollution conditions across the world along
with resulting in glaciers melting which in turn have an impact on the rising
sea levels.

 

 

 

Ø 
Water Crisis

Given the current scenario in India, because
of no regulation of usage of water there will soon come a time when there will
be acute water shortage in the country. A mixture of industrial effluents, sewage
disposal and over-utilisation of water have led to a lack of water for basic purposes
like drinking and irrigation. The rivers as well as ground water have become
highly polluted with the onslaught of high population and over-usage of both
renewable as well as non-renewable resources. Moreover, global warming has led
to a fall in annual rainfall received which further contributes to the country’s
water crisis.

 

Existing Actions taken by the Government

The Indian Government has undertaken various reforms to mitigate the various
environmental risks and walk hand-in-hand with the other countries to make this
world a better place to live in.

India came out with the National Action
Plan on Climate Change(NAPCC) to deal with the deteriorating environment.
It is an 8-step measure which focuses on promoting the country’s economic growth
but not at the cost of the climate’s health but instead intends to promote a healthy
environment. The missions include:

Ø 
National Solar
Mission- The aim is to promote the use of
solar energy as a source of power generation instead of coal in order to reduce
the usage of coal and in turn reduce air pollution

Ø 
National Mission
for Enhanced Energy Efficiency- This
mission mandates specific reduction in energy consumption in specific industries
along with energy incentives like tax incentives and allowing companies to trade
energy-saving certificates

Ø 
National Water
Mission- The main objective is to tackle the
water crisis in the country and improve water utilisation by about 20%

Ø 
National Mission
on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change- The plan intends to establish a new Climate Science Research
Fund in order to understand the impacts and challenges related to climate and promote
international collaboration

Ø 
National Mission
for Sustainable Agriculture- The NAPCC
aims is to develop climate resilient crops

Ø 
Green India
Mission- The objective is to promote
afforestation and increase India’s forest cover from the current 23% to 33%

Ø 
National Mission
for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem- With global
warming resulting in the glaciers of the world melting, NAPCC aims to protect
the Himalayan glaciers from melting

Ø 
National Mission
on Sustainable Habitat- The NAPCC aims
to promoting more sustainable habitat for living by laying a special emphasis
on recycling and reusing along with waste management

 

The
government has also come up with other initiatives like The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 to ensure that forest land is
not used for industrial activities or other purposes.

To tackle water conservation woes, it has come up with various policies
including:

Ø  The National Water Policy for
optimum utilisation of water resources

Ø  Bharat Nirman which was
adopted in 2005 with the aim of providing safe drinking water in rural areas

Ø  National Mission for Clean Ganga was established
with an aim to clean the river and its tributaries

Ø  National Water Mission, 2011 to minimise
water wastage and promote its conservation

Ø   Humara Jal, Humara Jeevan in
2015 with the objective of promoting awareness about water conservation amongst
the masses