Abstract: in their interest”. (The Commission on Global

Abstract:

International
organizations and global governance are two different terms, their purpose is
to develop a formal structure to set the international agenda and to
concentrate on formal procedure of developing laws, rules and regulation,
respectively. Global governance is mainly about political interaction of actors
of different regions seeking for the solution of a problem in more than one
region.

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Introduction:

 International organizations and global
governance go hand by hand. International organizations are the main element of
global governance, which have a very positive impact over global growth.
According to neo realist approach, international institutions are and always
will be fundamentally useless, because they cannot halt States from being
self-interested and holding power politics. Scholars such as John Mearsheimer
believe that institutions only have marginal power, giving way to an arena of
power relations between States, making them a reflection of the distribution of
power in the international system. (Mearsheimer: 2004: 13)

 Realists argue that the system of alliances
and the balance of power would maintain order. The international organizations
play a coordinating role in international relations and states can choose to
ignore international organizations whenever they conflict with the pursuit of
national self-advancement (Krasner, 1991; Mearsheimer, 1994). The idealist
notion is that international organizations are destined to solve common human
problems. Liberalists argue that international organizations provide an arena
in which states can interact, develop shared norms, and cooperate to solve
common problems. International organizations also coordinate action by
providing information, monitoring behavior, punishing defectors, and
facilitating transparency at a reduced cost to states (Keohane and Martin,
1995). These are the thoughts of some thinkers. Some other believers of different
approaches think that international organizations play a very important role in
domestic policy making.

Further, I will
discuss the role governance in different international affairs and impact of
international organizations on international relations. Firstly, I will define
governance as “the sum of the many ways individuals and institutions, public
and private, manage their common affairs. It is a continuing process through
which conflicting or diverse interests may be accommodated and cooperative
action may be taken. It includes formal as well as informal arrangements that
people and institutions have agreed to or perceive to be in their interest”. (The
Commission on Global Governance, 1995: 2). When League of Nations was created
then study of international organizations started, and it was illustrative and
legalistic. This study of International organizations aimed to conceptualize governance
and to point out the responsibility of the international organizations in all
that procedure. End of Cold War carried out greater probability of developing
the role, different functions and powers of international organizations in
global governance. Governance is something to make decisions and exercise powers.
Organizational structure is quite diverse in the whole world, that’s why it is
different actors of different regions are provided with power to govern. Basically,
role of global governance is to solve the problems, which are striking in different
regions with the help of actors from the different regions of the world.
Framework of the global governance is available in different forms by which
actors exercise their power at global level. When the study of international
organizations started after the creation of League of Nations. League of
Nations founded after World War I and called the Child of War. It was a fragile
International organization and was unable to maintain peace and security and
eventually failed to process further. After the demise of that league, the
actual need of global governance felt and then Institute of International Affairs
was created. An international organization can be defined as “an institutional
agreement between members of an international system to achieve objectives
according to systematic conditions, reflecting attributes, aspirations and
concerns of its members’ (Hanrieder,1966)”.

To make it clearer,
the impact of international organizations I will take the example United Nations.
In 20th century World War I and World War II happened. To resolve all
the problems and to create peace and security in the world, all the nations of
the world decided to establish an international organization. In January,1945
conference held in San Francisco where charter of United Nations signed by 51
nations of the world. It did not implement promptly because it was supposed to
ratified by the nations involved in the treaty. In October 1945 United Nations
was ultimately founded. The main purpose behind the creation of United Nation
was to solve the international economic, social and cultural problems and to encourage
basic rights of the humans without any distinction. In 1990’s for economic and
social matters, United Nations summoned nine global conferences to develop
rights of women, children and eradication of poverty. The analyses of current
international organizations comprise regional organizations and non-governmental
organizations. European Union happened in World War II, to stop the bloodshed
when it was at its peak. In 1950, European communities set to unite European
countries economically and politically to attain peace. “The European Union is
an important player in the global governance. Over the last six decades,
European countries have moved a slow and steady path toward closer cooperation.
The EU is an example of an organization with a relatively large number of
leading states, which facilitates common investment in some issue areas by
legalizing cooperation and making informal influence difficult to exercise
(Stone, 2008)”. Conversion of Europe into a peaceful continent, a helping neighbor
and an international donor is a best example which can be followed by any
International organization.  According to
the Europeans, Europe is the best place where community of diverse nations
lives with harmony. International organizations are likely to serve as instrument
to eradicate the conflicts between different countries, but such organizations
are not very successful in this situation. Because being successful to
eradicate these conflicts cause their own failure. International organizations
can function for the accumulation and declaration of their own interests into
the international system. To express their own interest in the world society
they carry out the interested states into same agenda. Just like in national
system state work for their own national interest by creating, interest groups
and formation of institutions. States do the same by expressing and declaring their
own common interests in international political system through international
organizations. To attain this, they form league, alliance and bloc. The role
that international organization can play depends