1. is a combination of biology and engineering.

1. Structural and molecular biology     Structural biology is the study of molecular structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules like proteins and nucleic acids, and how changes in their structures affect their function. Structural biology is combination of the principle of molecular biology, biochemistry and biophysics. Biomolecules are two small to be viewed by even the advanced microscope. There are many methods followed by the biologist to determine the size of many identical molecules at same time.        Molecular biology is a branch of biology that deals with the process like replication, transcription, translation and cell function. The center of attraction is where DNA creates RNA and RNA creates protein. By applying the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering, we can create large quantity of chemicals, antibodies, proteins and enzymes in a better manner. This has lead the molecular biology into various disciplines like agricultural molecular biology, medical or pharmaceutical molecular biology, industrial molecular biology and environmental molecular biology.                                                                 -Computational approaches in structural biology                                                                -Forensics                                                                -Signaling biology2. Synthetic biology    Synthetic biology is a combination of biology and engineering. Synthetic biology combines various disciplines to build artificial biological systems for research, engineering and medical application. It is the draft and construction of new biological entities or the redesign of existing biological systems. It is the combination of advances in chemistry, biology, computer science and engineering that enables us to design a product faster, cheaper and with great precision. It is used in many applications like cell transformation,designing proteins,information storage, material production,space exploration, biosensors and synthetic life.                                                                       -Synthetic transcription factors                                                                      -Modular protein assembly                                                                      -DNA synthesis                                                                      -Modeling3. Biochemistry     It is a branch of science which deals about the chemical and physico-chemical processes and substances which is inside living organisms. It also deals with the structures and physical properties of biological molecules. Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, it is a tool which follow up and studies about the molecular biology. The latest focus of biochemistry is to find how biological molecules gives rise to the processes happening inside the living cells.                                                                          -Immunology                                                                          -Genetics                                                                          -Enzymology                                                                          -Animal biochemistry                                                                          -Plant biochemistry                                                                           -Environmental biochemistry4. Molecular mechanics     Molecular mechanics uses the newtonian mechanics to design the molecular systems. It is used to study about the molecule systems ranging from small to large in size and complexity in biological systems with many thousands to millions of atoms. Each molecular mechanics should follow the properties saying that each atom is one particle, each particle has its radius, polarizability and constant net change, and the bonded interactions are treated as springs. It is used in applications like, to find the force applied on a particle, for energy minimization. Binding constant, protein folding kinetics, active site coordinates and design binding sites are calculated using molecular mechainics in energy minimization.                                                                      -Molecular dynamics                                                                     -Molecular mechanics in energy minimization                                                                     -Software of molecular mechanics                                                                     -Hardware of molecular mechanics5. Molecular biophysics     Molecular biophysics is a quickly evolving discipline in research that combines the concepts in physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and biology. It explains about the biological function in terms of molecular structure, structure organization and dynamic behaviour at many levels of complexity. It contains measurement of molecular forces, molecular associations,allosteric interaction and cable theory. There are many spectroscopy techniques, which is used to understand the structure of important biomolecules and inter-molecular interaction. The molecular simulation gives the microscopic structure with the help of molecular dynamics software. For more accuracy and biological relevances, additional terms can be added to the computer simulation equation.                                          -Spectroscopy in molecular biophysics                                         -Molecular simulations in molecular biophysics                                         -Molecular association and measurement of molecular forces                                         -Biophysical profile (BPP)6. Genetic informatics      Bioinformatics is a branch in science which is computer based, which emphasizes on the databases and software developmental tools. The biological phenomena are studied based on the biomolecules and their interactions which lead to a complete metabolism of the organism and in understanding the evolution of life. This helps in explaining the intrinsic cellular studies, genetic factors, genetic diseases, medications and correlation with the other evolutionary species. The databases realm within them, such that the data source of every biomolecule thus making it easily accessed, managed and updated to the researchers.                                                                  -Protein structure prediction                                                                  -Protein data banks                                                                  -Homology modelling7. Molecular basis of disease       With the entire human genome sequenced, it has become easier than it was decades ago to identify the genes that causes the particular disease. Unfortunately identification of the gene responsible for the disease doesnt lead for cure. To develop a therapy we need to understand where and when the particular gene will be expressed, and also their functions when they are normal and when they are diseased.                                                                -Basic molecular technique                                                                -Biochemical technique                                                                -Cell biological technique                                                                -Structural analysis                                                                -Proteomics8. Drug design, biomarkers     Drug designing is of finding new medications depending upon the biological target. It uses the 3D information about the biomolecules obtained from analytical techniques which is more traceable when there is a high-resolution structure of a target protein bound to a potent ligand to design the drug. Molecular mechanics or molecular dynamics is most often used to estimate the strength of the intermolecular interactions between the molecule and its biological target. Computational methods have geared up in the discovery of huge number of iterations providing the novel structures.      Biomarkers includes tools and technologies that aids in dynamic and powerful approach to understand the spectrum of neurological diseases in knowing the prediction, cause, diagnosis, progression, regression, or outcome of treatment of a disease.                                                               -Ligand based drug design                                                               -Structure based drug design                                                               -Natural history markers                                                               -Drug activity markers                                                               -Surrogate/ Diagnostic biomarkers                                                               -Molecular biomarkers9. Genome replication and translation     Genome is an important field in computational biology in the development of tools for DNA sequence information and analysis, gene mapping, genetic variation, complex trait mapping, predict protein sequence and structure. Next Generation sequencing results in large amounts of long or short DNA reads requiring assembly process to generate the complete genome sequence. In future there is possibilities for the development and maintenance of databases of genomic, which includes new tools for annotating complex genomes to expand their utility.                                                           -Sequencing and mapping                                                           -Assembly                                                           -Annotation                                                           -Alteration     10. Chemical biology     Experimental and computational approaches are combined and used to gain molecular understanding of fundamental biological mechanisms and to design small molecule probes that can perturb biological pathways in informative and potentially therapeutic ways. Developing and applying experimental and computational approaches to elucidate molecular structure, design novel molecules, and study complex biological processes.                                                -Chemical probes                                               -Structure and mechanism of macromolecular complexes                                               -Computational methods of chemical biology                                               -Single molecule techniques11. Structural virology     Viruses show different morphologies in their shapes and sizes. These are smaller in structures than the bacteria. These are simpler as an individual, but when formed as a group they are exceptionally diverse both in replication strategies and structures. Many viruses are important human pathogens. Many techniques such as x-ray crystallography, NMR and cryo-EM are used to determine viral structures. These structure in-turn are used to develop anti-viral drugs and vaccines.                                                 -Solution NMR spectroscopy                                                 -Cryo-electron tomography                                                 -Xray crystallography for viruses                                                 -Foci formation                                                 -Hemagglutintion                                                 -Plague assay12. Molecular biology methods and techniques     Molecular biology deals with the structure and function of macromolecules and also about the interaction between DNA, RNA, protein and its biosynthesis. The different methods in molecular biology are hemacytometer cell counter, restriction enzyme digest, DNA ligation, transfection, western blot, plasmid purification, electroporation, heat shock method, and ELISA. There are various techniques used in molecular biology.                                                                                                              -Molecular cloning                                                                         -Polymerase chain reaction                                                                        -Gel electrophoresis                                                                        -Maromolecular blotting and probing                                                                         -Microarrays                                                                          -DNA sequencing                                                                        -Gene delivery                          13. Structural biology techniques      A change in the structure of molecules will cause change in their functions too. By knowing about the functions for each structural change, it can be used in future for research purposes. There are various techniques used to study about the funtions when the structures are changed.                                                                                                                                – Advanced mass spectroscopy                                                                              – Electron microscopy                                                                              – Spectroscopy                                                                              – Surface plasmon response14. Applications of structural molecular biology     Structural molecular biology has a tremendous application in the study of molecules affecting the living beings. The study of the molecules and the changes in the functions due to change in their structure are used in many applications. They are used under three aspects like biophysical methods and instrumentation, their application to biological structure problems, and derivation of structural information and insights. They are used in areas like,                                                                                 – Molecular application                                                                                – Biotechnology                                                                                – Computational biology                                                                                – Structural and biophysical biology15. Analytical techniques     Analytical technique is generic process that combines the scientific method with formal process to solve any type of problem, i.e., it is used to find the concentration of a molecule in a chemical compound or element. Structure probing biochemical techniques determines these biomolecular structures in vast numbers of the same identical molecules at once. Scientists use them to study the native states of biomolecules. Few of the best methods determining the structures are X-ray crystallography, Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.                                              -Macromolecular crystallography proteolysis                                             -Multiangle light scattering                                             -Small angle scattering                                             -Ultra fast laser spectroscopy                                             -Electron paramagnetic resonance                                             -Mass spectrometry                                             -Dual polarization interferometry16. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry     It is a method used to obtain informations about the structure and dynamics of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes. Structure determination by NMR spectroscopy consists of several phases, where each phases have a separate set of highly specialized techniques. The samples are prepared, measured, suitable methods are applied, and the structure is calculated and validated. NMR depends upon the quantum mechanical properties of a nucleus of an atom. Currently most of the samples are tested in a solution like water, but researches are going on to work with solid samples too. It is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and classifies the ions based on their mass to charge ratio. It measures the masses within a sample.       Mass spectrometry is used in many fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures. Mass spectrometry is used in both qualitative and quantitative ways. This technique is used to identify the unknown compounds, determining the isotopic composition of elements in a molecule and determining the structure of a compound by observing its fragmentation. Some of the applications are trace gas analysis, pharmacokinetics, protein characterization, space exploration, respired gas monitor and preparative mass spectrometry.                                             -Solid state nuclear magnetic spectroscopy                                             -Multi-dimensional spectroscopy                                             -Fourier transform spectroscopy                                             -Correlation spectroscopy                                             -Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy17. Crystallography        It deals about the structure and properties of crystals. It is used to determine the arrangements of atoms in the crystalline solids. Now crystallography depends on analysis of the diffraction patterns of the sample targeted by the beam of some type, mostly x-ray. The most commonly used radiations are x-ray, neutrons and electrons. To acquire the spatial arrangement of an atom, the radiation should be of shorter wavelength.                                                           – Xray crystallography                                                           -Neutron crystallography                                                           -Electron crystallography                                                          – Protein crystallography 18. Chromatographic techniques     It is a technique done in laboratories for separation of mixture. Each particle in a mixture has its own speed of movement, which causes them to separate when dissolved in some fluid. There are two phases, such as mobile phase and stationary phase. Mobile phase is where the mixture is dissolved, and the stationary phase is through which the mixture is carried. The seperation is based on theses two phases differential partitioning.                                                          -Shape of bed                                                          -Physical state of mobile phase                                                          -Seperation mechanisms                                                          -Modified or specialized chromatography19. Clinical application     The various molecular and structural biology methods are analyzed and used in clinicals to treat the infections or injuries. By analysing and comparing the structure and function of the molecule being affected and non-affected, that is by using the various structural and molecular methods and techniques, the mode and level of injury is found and treated.                                                            -In radiation oncology                                                            -Diagnosis of infectious disease                                                            -Cancer research 20. The latest trends in structural and molecular biology     Development of advanced technology helps in disease prevention and better  treatment. The latest trends in this field are polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cycle sequencing, PFGE, subtractive hybridization, oligoribonucleotide technology or automated DNA hybridization.                                                                 -Cycle sequencing                                                                 -Subtractive hybridisation                                                                 -Automated DNA hybridization                                                                 -PFGE